For the for every single instance, the questions worried about one another face-to-deal with and online matchmaking

For the for every single instance, the questions worried about one another face-to-deal with and online matchmaking


To help you assess the sized this new community out-of deal with-to-deal with household members, those things in the Joy Survey Display (Helliwell and you may Huang, 2013) were used: “Around how many friends are you experiencing?.” That it matter is replied to the a level of 1 less than 5 household members to help you 5 more fifty family relations. The question to assess the size of online buddy systems are comparable (Helliwell and you will Huang, 2013): “Up to just how many members of the family have you got towards Facebook?” nevertheless the response scale is actually various other, anywhere between step one less than fifty to 8 more than a lot of.

The questions into the quality of dating found in the Western european Personal Questionnaire have been adapted to evaluate quality of deal with-to-deal with an internet-based relationships. All the questions was in fact: “How many people do you have that have whom you can also be speak about intimate and private issues?” and “Just how many of those persons try your Fb members of the family?.” Brand new reaction measure ranged from just one (none) so you’re able to eight (ten or even more).

A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends’ observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.


In order to assess future health, in addition to the detected wellness product often found in international studies (age.g., Eriksson et al., 2001 – “How can you rate your wellbeing typically” which have solutions on a beneficial 5-section measure, ranging from pretty good to help you very bad) the five pieces of the fresh future health dimensions of your Condition of Health Survey SF-thirty six (Ware and Sherbourne, 1992) were incorporated. An example of the questions is: “I appear to get sick a little smoother than other anybody.” These things had been answered to the good 5-point scale, ranging from step 1 undoubtedly not the case so you can 5 undoubtedly genuine. The 5 circumstances presented an adequate accuracy (? = 0.72) as well as the mediocre of four factors was computed given that indicator out of worry about-said physical health.

Mental health are examined through five products throughout the SF-thirty six (Ware and you will Sherbourne, 1992). An example was “How many times have you experienced really worried within the last cuatro months?.” This type of questions was indeed responded toward a 5-area scale, ranging from not to always. Just like the amount of interior feel of the items try a great (? = 0.80), the brand new signal from psychological state was computed, averaging the answers to the five issues.

The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.

The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.

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