Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private interaction)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private interaction)

(20) The expression to own ‘brother’, aha in BT, have as well been augmented, even though this mode is additionally used in Turoyo. Hertevin has each other ?aha and ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

At the same time, outside NENA, i have almost every other terms and conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) One to rather mysterious items that’s attested throughout NENA languages but Sanandaj Christian (hence probably merely a chance pit about evidence) is aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues that the keyword derives regarding supply ql ‘to become crooked’. All languages use the form aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Some other term chatted about from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-32, 134) was baxta ‘woman’, with supplanted the fresh new Syriac atta in all NENA, but not inside Turoyo or Mandaic. Which word seems to result of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is fascinating to see you to definitely an unequal plural survives inside numerous languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and Halabja inse.

(23) An urgent development talked about of the Noldeke (1868, 59) was rxata, equal to Syriac rhat. The change of h so you’re able to x within one word are included in all the NENA languages where in actuality the verb is attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, https://datingranking.net/tr/livejasmin-inceleme 222).

(24) Another unanticipated creativity ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, which will take the fresh variations zda?a good, zdaya, and you will zdala on the individuals languages. Macuch and you can Panoussi (1974, 50) give a possible derivation on the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Versions to the infixed d are found in all the brand new NENA languages where resources try attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Only a few of your own determining top features of NENA are found in either Turoyo otherwise Mandaic

I believe that the more than will make it clear that NENA dialects display an array of special characteristics being discover neither in the earlier attested kinds of Aramaic neither regarding the other traditions dialects. These characteristics diversity across the domain names out-of phonology, morphology, and also the lexicon.

Specifically, most of the languages of NENA concur from inside the standards 2, nine, 14, 15, sixteen, 21, and you will twenty-two. All dialects where you will find guidance and agree with standards 20, 23, and you will twenty-four.

All but Halabja consent within the conditions 8 and you may 11. Standards 6 is located in the languages but Halabja, Hertevin, and Sanandaj Christian.

Despite its inner departments, this new NENA dialects form a strikingly coherent class, separated certainly regarding one another Turoyo and you will Mandaic. The career ones dialects away from NENA soft is out of question.

The degree that provides is shared around the NENA is especially impressive when we check out the immense differences between different languages. This new determine out-of other languages toward NENA might have been both strong and you can wide, and the standard of common intelligibility ranging from dialects can be hugely brief. The many mutual innovations argue highly to own a common origin from the newest NENA languages, either in an individual dialect or perhaps in a group of closely relevant languages. At the same time, we can detect several important packages out-of isoglosses hence portray the borders away from dialect communities.

a) The brand new dialect away from Halabja will not display some crucial designs hence can be found as a consequence of the remaining portion of the dialects. It does not form good CCiC-ce preterite off intransitive verbs (8), it has got zero b(it)- coming marker (10), possesses no 3rd people singular copula which have step one (11). This will be the quintessential important department anywhere between languages out of NENA. It indicates that kept dialects means a team through which designs pass on if you find yourself Halabja stayed unchanged of the him or her.

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